FDM stands for Fused Deposition Modeling, which is a popular 3D printing technology.

Let's break it down in simple terms: 

You have a 3D printer, which is like a robot that can create physical objects layer by layer.

The printer has a nozzle, like a tiny hot glue gun, attached to a moving arm.


FDM uses a special material called filament. It's usually a long, thin strand of plastic, often made of materials like PLA or ABS. More details of filament below

Building Layers:

The 3D printer starts with a digital 3D model of the object you want to create.

The printer then slices this digital model into thin horizontal layers.

Heating and Extrusion:

The filament is fed into the printer, and it passes through a heated nozzle.

The heat melts the plastic, making it a bit like soft, sticky spaghetti.

Layer-by-Layer Printing:

The printer starts at the bottom and begins creating the object layer by layer.

The melted filament is extruded from the nozzle and quickly cools down, becoming solid again.

Building Up:

The printer's arm moves around precisely, following the instructions from the digital model.

With each layer, the printer builds up the object from the bottom to the top.


Once all the layers are printed, you get a 3D object that matches the digital model.

The layers are fused together, creating a solid and durable structure.

In summary, FDM 3D printing is like a robot artist using a hot glue gun to create a sculpture by stacking layers of melted plastic one on top of the other. It's a versatile and widely used method for turning digital designs into real, tangible objects.


PLA (Polylactic Acid)


Environmentally friendly, made from renewable resources (like cornstarch).

Low printing temperature, reducing the risk of warping.

Minimal odor during printing.



Can be brittle compared to some other materials.

Lower heat resistance than some alternatives.

ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)


Durable and impact-resistant.

Good heat resistance.

Available in a wide range of colors.

Can be smoothed with acetone vapor.


Requires higher printing temperatures, which can produce fumes.

Prone to warping, may need a heated bed or enclosure.

Strong odor during printing.

PETG (Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol)


Durable and impact-resistant, similar to ABS.

Higher temperature resistance than PLA.

Less prone to warping compared to ABS.

Transparency and glossiness options available.


May require a heated bed.

Slightly more challenging to print than PLA.

TPU (Thermoplastic Polyurethane)


Flexible and elastic properties, suitable for flexible prints.

Good layer adhesion.

Resistant to abrasion.


Can be more challenging to print due to flexibility.

Limited color options compared to other filaments.



High strength and durability.

Good chemical resistance.

Low friction, suitable for moving parts.


Absorbs moisture from the air, affecting print quality.

Requires careful drying before printing.

Higher printing temperatures.

These are general points, and the actual experience with each filament can vary depending on specific brand formulations and printer settings.